Designing a Communications System

Increasingly, these are the networks that connect us. People talk online everywhere. Conversations in the classroom turn into instant message chat sessions, and online conversations continue in school. Every day new services are created to take advantage of the network.

Instead of creating individual and separate systems for each new service delivery, the network industry as a whole has adopted a development framework that enables designers to understand and maintain existing network platforms. At the same time, this framework is used to facilitate the development of new technologies to support future communication needs and technological improvements. This development framework mainly uses commonly accepted models that describe the rules and functions of the network. Learn about these models, as well as the standards that make networks work, and how communication happens on a network.


Communication Fundamentals

A network can be as complex as a device connected to the Internet, or as simple as two computers directly connected to one computer, and everything in between. Networks can vary in size, shape, and function. However, having only a physical wired or wireless connection between the end devices is not enough to allow communication. For communication to occur, the devices must know “how” to communicate.

People exchange ideas using many different methods of communication. However, regardless of the chosen method, all communication modes have three elements in common. The first of these elements is the source or sender of the message. Message sources are people or electronic devices that need to send messages to other people or devices. The second element of communication is the message destination, or receiver. Destiny receives the message and interprets it. A third element, called a channel, consists of the sources that provide the route through which the message flows from the source to the destination.



Communication begins with a message or information that must be sent from a source to a destination. Sending this message, either through face-to-face communication or over a network, operates under a protocol called protocol. These protocols are specific to the type of communication that occurs. In our everyday personal communication, the rules we use to communicate through a medium, such as a phone call, are not necessarily the same as the protocol of using another medium, such as sending letters.

For example, consider two people who talk face-to-face, as shown in Figure 1, before discussing how they should agree. If communication uses voice, they must first agree on the language. Then when they have a message to share, they are able to craft this message in a comprehensible way. For example, if someone uses the English language, but has the wrong sentence structure, the message can easily be misunderstood. Each of these tasks defines the protocol established for communication. The same is true for computer communications.

Many different principles or protocols govern all the modes of communication that exist in the world today.



Rule Establishment

Before communicating with each other, people should use the principles or agreements established to govern the conversation. For example, consider Figure 1, protocols are essential for effective communication. These principles, or protocols, must be adhered to in order for the message to succeed and to be understood. The protocol should take into account the following requirements:

1 · An identified sender and recipient
2 · Common language and grammar
3 · Delivery speed and time
4 · Certification or identification requirements

The protocols used in network communication share many of these basic features. In addition to identifying the origin and destination, computer and network protocols describe how a message is transmitted over a network. Common computing protocols include the requirements shown in Figure 2, each of which will be discussed in more detail


Message Size

Another rule of communication is size. When people interact with each other, the messages they send out are usually broken down into smaller sections or sentences. These sentences are limited in size to the one the recipient can process at a time, as shown in Figure 1, an individual conversation can consist of many short sentences to ensure that every part of the message is made. Received and understood. Imagine what it would be like to read this course if it all appears as one long sentence. It will not be easy to read and understand.

Similarly, when sending a long message from one host to another network, it is important to break the message into smaller pieces, as shown in Figure 2. The networks are very tight. Depending on the channel used, these may vary. Frames too long or too short are not provided.

The long message will be sent in separate frames, with each frame having a fragment of the original message. Each frame will also have its own address information. In the received host, the individual pieces of the message are resized to the original message.


Message Timing

For message time. These are the rules of engagement.

How to access

The access mode determines when a message is capable of being sent. If two people talk at the same time, the information collides and it is important for both of them to step back and start over, as shown in the animation. Similarly, it is important for computers to specify an access mechanism. Hosts in the network need an access mechanism to know when to start sending messages and how to respond when a conflict occurs.

Flow control

Time also affects how much information can be sent and the speed at which it can be delivered . In network communication, source and destination hosts use flow control methods to communicate the right timing of successful communication.

Response timeout

If a person asks a question and does not hear an answer within an acceptable time, the person assumes that no answer is coming and reacts accordingly. The person can repeat the question, or move on in the conversation. There are also rules for hosts on the network that tell how long to wait for responses and what action will be taken if the response period expires.